In 1986, the Sultanate had announced a National Strategy for Protecting the Omani Environment. It aims generally at protecting the environment, evaluating and controlling the pollution and finding and implementing solutions.
The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan aims at conserving the national biodiversity, use its resources sustainably and equally share the benefits arising from its use.
The Sultanate issued many laws and ministerial decisions for preserving environment such as the following:
|1||Issuing the Law on the Conservation of the Environment and Prevention of Pollution (114/2001)|
|2||Issuing law on Protection of sources of potable water from pollution Royal Decree No. (115/2001)|
|3||Issuing the Law on Nature Reserves and Wildlife Conservation (6/2003)|
|4||Issuing the Law of Handling and Use of Chemicals (46/95)|
|5||Issuing the Maritime Law (35/81)|
|6||Establishment of Turtles Reserve (25/96)|
|7||Amendment of some conditions of the Law of Establishment of National Parks and Natural Protected Areas (47/95)|
|8||Issuing a Decision on the Territorial Sea, the Continental Shelf and the Exclusive Economic Zone (15/81)|
|9||Establishment of Al Demaniyat Islands Nature Reserve (23/96)|
|10||Oil and Gas Law (Royal Decree No. 42/74)|
|11||Ministerial Decision No 159/2005 on discharge of liquid waste in the marine environment|
|12||Ministerial Decision No. 118/04 on the Control of Air Pollution|
|13||Ministerial Decision No. 79/94 on the Control of Noise Pollution in Public Places|
|14||Ministerial Decision No. 18/93 on the Management of Hazardous Waste|
You can find all the regulations at the website of the Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs (Arabic only).
|1||Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal|
|2||Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade|
|3||Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP)|
|4||Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction|
|5||United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change|
|6||Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change|
|7||The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer|
|8||Convention on Biological Diversity|
|9||Protocol on Biosafety|
|10||United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea|
|11||IMO conventions (IMO)|
|12||1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships as amended by the protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78)|
|13||Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumbing of Wastes and Other Matter|
|14||1969 International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties|
|15||1992 Protocol of Amendment to the International Convention of 1969 on civil liability for damage caused by oil pollution (Civil Liability Convention-CLC 92)|
|16||United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)|
|17||Convention on preservation of wildlife and natural habitats in the Gulf Cooperation Council|
For further information about the above mentioned conventions and protocols, you can visit the Protocols and contracts page (Arabic-only). here.
Government statement on sustainability in general
"Oman believes that the social, economic and environmental issues cannot be separated, and this is what sustainable development means."
Article (29) of Conservation of the Environment and Prevention of Pollution Law
The Sultanate is keen to ensure economic and social prosperity in the development process without prejudice to the rights of future generations ever since the beginning of the renaissance. Oman's government is seeking to manage natural resources sustainably, as well as raising individuals’ level of awareness in preserving environment, and finally implementing development projects that exploits environmental resources without damaging it.
Therefore, Ministries and Civil Government Units Investment Program is set up to achieve the economic, social, cultural, and environmental goals of sustainable development. The program ensures the implementation of the five-year plans, and usage of oil revenues to build an economy that is capable of ensuring sustainable development for the Sultanate. In its planning methodology, Oman formulates the objectives of each five-year plan based on the results of evaluating the achievements of the previous plan, and according to the needs of each stage.
Being interested in this cause, the Sultanate imposes severe penalties on those who threaten the environmental security. According to Article (42) of the Omani environmental protection code, in some cases penalties are up to lifetime-imprisonment or a fine of no less than 100,000 RO and no more than RO 1,000,000, plus claiming the polluter to remove the effects of pollution caused. Such acts by the government prevents entrepreneurs and factories’ owners from violating laws to avoid severe sanctions.
The Sultanate’s statements on clean water, air and energy
Article (29) of Conservation of the Environment and Prevention of Pollution Law states on "Making environmental planning an essential part of the overall development planning in all fields to achieve concept of sustainable development, and to give priority to the principle of preserving environment and preventing pollution."
Water: Oman always seeks to maintain its water clean and fight against all forms of pollution threatening its purity, for it believes that providing clean water is an essential part of the decent life it seeks to guarantee for its inhabitants. To achieve this, Royal Decree No. 35/81 on issuing maritime law was issued to protect the marine environment and Royal Decree No. 115/2001 on protection of sources of potable water from pollution. Moreover, Ministerial Decision No. 159/2005 was issued and followed by many regulations. The Ministry monitors and examines water samples constantly to ensure its purity as part of the tasks of the national program for monitoring contaminants in marine environment.
The corporate policy of the Public Authority for Electricity and Water states that “Our vision is to ensure that high quality sustainable and reliable potable water and power services are accessible to all people in the Sultanate of Oman.”
Air: Oman realizes the need of maintaining its air clean to keep pace of economic and environmental development goals along with human development goals which aims at providing livable healthy environment. Ministerial Decision No. 04/118 on the law of air pollution management and the list of control and management of ozone-depleting substances is a confirmation of the Sultanate’s great interest in preserving air purity. Therefore, the Sultanate began in 2004 to establish a national network for monitoring air pollution. The network’s stations are distributed in industrial areas to monitor air pollution levels and ensure that they are exceeding the allowed levels. A number of mobile stations were also established.
Energy: Sustainable development plans in the Sultanate aims mainly at preserving environment resources and energy sources for future generations. Therefore, the Sultanate attempts to find and exploit renewable energy sources. Plus, encouraging individuals to save energy through launching several awareness campaigns by various government agencies, supporting research in the field of renewable energy and establishing contests in this area such as, “The Omani Eco-Friendly House Contest,” which is prepared and financed by the Research Council. The Sultanate seeks to building solar power stations in Adam and Manah, and is exploring the possibility of exploiting wind power.
The Sultanate’s policies in reducing climate change
Oman has signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 and has ratified it by Royal Decree No. 94/119, it had also ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the Convention by Royal Decree No. 2004/107. This reflects the Sultanate’s awareness of the need for concerted efforts in protecting Earth from climate change and reducing its global effects. The Ministry of Environment and Climatic Affairs in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme has carried out a project of building capacities in the field of climate change to prepare and publish the Sultanate’s first national proclamation report on climate change, which was formally approved and sent to the Secretariat General of the Framework Convention on Climate Change in October 2013.
Oman has also ratified the Vienna Convention for the protection of Ozone layer, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone Layer and their amendments in London and Copenhagen. The Sultanate's efforts in the matter were a success, where the consumption of Ozone-depleting-substances was reduced to zero or less than the levels set by the Montreal Protocol.